In the last decades, the nutritional value of olive oil products has been demontrated by the international scientific community in relation to health and longevity...

Olive Oil & Health

Olive oil and cancer
Cancer is one of the chief causes of death in the developed countries, and its incidence is on the increase. 
It is now conceded that there is a relationship between diet and the development of a large number of malignant tumours. Cell oxidation is one of the major risks in the formation of cancer: the more susceptible the cell is to oxygen, the greater the risk of cancer. The types of cancer most closely associated with diet are colon-rectal, prostate and breast cancer. Recent research has revealed that the type of fat seems to have more implications for cancer incidence than the quantity of fat.

What is cancer?
A tumour is an abnormal swelling or enlargement of a part of body tissue. Tumours may be benign or malignant. 
Benign tumours are tumours whose cells remain at their original site. They form a localised cell mass which, when it grows, encapsulates and very rarely causes death. Malignant or cancerous tumours, on the other hand, invade the tissue where they grow. Often they pass into the bloodstream and the lymphatic system, forming secondary tumours at other sites known as metastases. The speed of growth and metastasis varies according to the type of tumour. Various environmental factors (physical factors: radiation; chemical factors: certain constituents of foods) and genetic factors are at play in the formation of tumours. In most types of cancer, environmental factors are most important.

Olive oil and cancer
Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil exerts a protective effect against certain malignant tumours (breast, prostate, endometrium, digestive tract). 
A number of research studies have documented that olive oil reduces the risk of breast cancer. Eating a healthy diet with olive oil as the main source of fat could considerably lower cancer incidence. The reason is that the cell mutations caused by cancer are partly due to toxins which, when consumed through the diet, attack DNA. On passing through the liver, these toxins produce free radicals that then attack DNA. To combat such free radicals, the body needs vitamins and antioxidants like those contained in olive oil. It has also been reported that an olive-oil-rich diet is associated with reduced risk of bowel cancer. The protective effect of olive oil is irrespective of the amount of fruit and vegetables eaten in the diet. Recent studies have demonstrated that olive oil provides protection against cancer of the colon. Lately, research has been looking into the metabolic implications of fats, more specifically the protective role of olive oil in chronic liver disease and in the disorder of the intestines known as Crohn's disease. Results point to beneficial effects of olive oil on pre-cancerous lesions. After analysing three types of diet, research scientists arrived at various conclusions. The olive oil diet reduced the number of cancerous lesions; the number of tumours that developed was clearly and significantly low; and the tumours were less aggressive and had a better prognosis.

This beneficial effect could be related to oleic acid, the predominant monounsaturated fatty acid in olive oil. It has been observed that this fatty acid lowers the production of prostaglandins derived from arachidonic acid, which in turn plays a significant part in the production and development of tumours. However, it is not excluded that other constituents of olive oil, such as antioxidants, flavonoids, polyphenols and squalene may also have a positive influence. Squalene is believed to have a favourable effect on the skin by reducing the incidence of melanomas. Olive oil also adds to the taste of vegetables and pulses whose benefits in cancer prevention have been amply proved. Some very promising, current research is centred on the protection provided by olive oil against child leukaemia and various cancers, such as oesophageal squamous cell cancer. Much has still to be discovered about how olive oil affects cancer and concrete data are still lacking on the mechanisms behind the beneficial role it plays in the prevention or inhibitionof the growth of different types of cancer. However, according to the information available at present, olive oil could actsimultaneously during the different stages involved in the process of cancer formation.


Olive oil and blood pressure
Various research studies have reported a close relationship between diet and blood pressure. Certain foods can raise blood pressure besides having an effect on body weight.

What is high blood pressure?
High blood pressure is known as arterial hypertension and is considered to occur when blood pressure readings are constantly over 140/90 mmHg. 
High blood pressure is one of the chief coronary risk factors in the development of arteriosclerosis. Along with high blood cholesterol, cigarette smoking, obesity and diabetes, it is one of the main health problems of the developed world. Like other risk factors, lifestyle can contribute to high blood pressure. One in every four adults is hypertensive. This increases the risk of early death because of the damage to the body's arteries, especially the arteries that supply blood to the heart, kidneys, brain and eyes.

Olive oil and blood pressure
It has not yet been clearly established what elements of the Mediterranean diet are responsible for its effects in reducing blood pressure. It has been demonstrated, however, that the addition of olive oil to a diet that is not changed in any other way has a clear lowering effect on blood pressure, which seems to be specific to this oil. Regular consumption of olive oil decreases both systolic (maximum) and diastolic (minimum) blood pressure. 
There is recent evidence that when olive oil is consumed the daily dose of drugs needed to control blood pressure in hypertensive patients can be decreased, possibly because of a reduction in nitric acid caused by polyphenols.


Olive oil and diabetes

What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading health problems in the developed countries, and the sixth cause of death. It is one of the major metabolic diseases and it is potentially very serious because it can cause many complications that seriously damage health, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, blindness, peripheral circulation disorders, etc.

There are two types of diabetes mellitus: type-I or insulin-dependent diabetes, found in children and teenagers, and type-II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, which appears in adulthood, generally from the age of 40 onwards. Insulin is required to control the first type while the second, more frequent type is generally associated with obesity and does not call for insulin treatment. Nowadays a person is considered to be a diabetic when, two hours after an oral overdose of glucose, he or she has a fasting blood sugar level of more than 126 mg/dl, or of more than 200 mg/dl in non-fasting conditions. Glucose intolerance is a situation where a person has high blood sugar levels (between 110 and 125 mg/dl) without any clear signs of disease, but with a major risk of suffering from diabetes in the future.

Olive oil and diabetes
An olive-oil-rich diet is not only a good alternative in the treatment of diabetes; it may also help to prevent or delay the onset of the disease. How it does so is by preventing insulin resistance and its possible pernicious implications by raising HDL-cholesterol, lowering triglycerides, and ensuring better blood sugar level control and lower blood pressure. It has been demonstrated that a diet that is rich in olive oil, low in saturated fats, moderately rich in carbohydrates and soluble fibre from fruit, vegetables, pulses and grains is the most effective approach for diabetics. Besides lowering the "bad" low-density lipoproteins, this type of diet improves blood sugar control and enhances insulin sensitivity. 
These benefits have been documented in child and adult diabetes.